About Jeff Babbitt

As one of our elite cadre of solution architects, Jeff has adeptly wire-walked the cutting edge of communications network technology for 20 years. He is deeply committed to sharing knowledge through forward-thinking product planning and management, in combination with his technical marketing skills. Jeff is also a respected expert author with almost 20 published papers to his credit covering topics such as revenue management, QoS, availability and core switching.

The Surprising Benefits of Uncoupling Aggregation from Transponding

Data Center Interconnect (DCI) traffic comprises various combinations of 10G and 100G on each service. In a typical application, DWDM is used to maximize the quantity of traffic that can be carried on single fiber.

Virtually all available products for this function combine aggregation and transponding into a single platform; they aggregate multiple 10G services into a single 100G and then transpond that 100G onto a lambda for multiplexing alongside other lambdas onto a single fiber. Decoupling aggregation and transponding into two different platforms is a new approach. At Fujitsu, this approach consists of a 10GbE to 100G Layer 1 aggregation device—the 1FINITY T400— and a separate 100GbE to 200G transponder—the 1FINITY T100— that serve the two halves of the formerly combined aggregation-transponding function. This decoupled configuration is unique to these 1FINITY platforms, and it offers unique advantages.

Paradoxically, at first glance, this type of “two-box” solution may seem less desirable. But there are several advantages to decoupling aggregation from transponding—particularly in DCI applications. Here’s a quick rundown of the benefits. As you’ll see, they’re similar to the overall benefits of the new disaggregated, blade-centric approach to data center interconnect architecture.

Efficient use of rack space: Physical separation of aggregation and transponding splits a single larger unit into two smaller ones: a dedicated transponder and a dedicated aggregator. As a result the overall capacity of existing racks is increased and as an added benefit, it is easier to find space for individual units and use up scattered empty 1RU slots, which helps make the fullest possible use of costly physical facilities.

Reducing “stranded” bandwidth: Many suppliers are using QSFP+ transponders, which offer programmable 40G or 100G. Bandwidth can be wasted when aggregating 10G services because 40 is not a factor of 100, which necessitates deployment in multiples of 200G in order to make the numbers work out; this frequently results in “over-buying” significant un-needed capacity.. The 1FINITY T400 aggregator deploys in chunks of 100G, which keeps stranded bandwidth to a minimum by reducing the over-buy factor.    

Simplified operations: Operational simplification occurs for two reasons. First, when upgrading the transponder, you simply change it out without affecting the aggregator. With aggregation decoupled from the transponder, changes such as upgrading the transponder or adjusting the mix of 10G/100G clients involve disconnection/reconnection of fewer fibers and require fewer re-provisioning commands. Line-side rate changes to the mix of 10 and 100G services involve roughly 60% of the operational activities in comparison with competing platforms. Client-side  rate changes involve 25% fewer operational activities. Fewer activities means fewer mistakes, less time per operation, and therefore less cost. Savings in this area mainly affect the expensive line side, which creates a larger cost reduction.

Overall, by separating the aggregator and transponder, Fujitsu can offer data centers significant savings through better use of resources as well as simplification of operations and provisioning. Find out more by visiting the Fujitsu 1FINITY platform Web page.

Service Provisioning is Easier with YANG and the 1FINITY Platform

Years ago, alarm monitoring and fault management were difficult across multivendor platforms. These tasks became significantly easier—and ubiquitous—after the introduction of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and Management Information Base (MIB-II).

Similarly, multivendor network provisioning and equipment management has proved elusive. The reason is the complexity and variability of provisioning and management commands in equipment from multiple vendors.

Could a new protocol and data modeling language again provide the solution?

Absolutely. Over time, NETCONF and YANG will do for service provisioning what SNMP and MIB-II did for alarm management.

Recently, software-defined networking (SDN) has introduced IT and data center architectural concepts to network operators—that is, by separating the control plane and the forwarding plane in network devices, allowing their control from a central location. Innovative disaggregated hardware leverages this new SDN paradigm with centralized control and the use of YANG, a data modeling language and application program interface (API).

YANG offers an open model that, when coupled with the benefit of standard interfaces such as NETCONF and REST, finally supports multivendor management. This approach provides an efficient mechanism to overcome the complexity and idiosyncrasies inherent in each vendor’s implementation.

Fujitsu’s response to this evolution is the 1FINITY™ platform, a revolutionary disaggregated networking solution. Rather than creating a multifunction converged platform, each 1FINITY function resides in a 1RU blade: transponder/muxponder blades, lambda DWDM blades, and switching blades. Each blade delivers a single function that previously resided in a converged architecture—the result is scalability and pay-as-you-grow flexibility.

Each 1FINITY blade has an open API and supports NETCONF and YANG, paving the way for a network fully rooted in the new SDN and YANG paradigm. New 1FINITY blades are easy to program via an open, interoperable controller, such as Fujitsu Virtuora® NC. Since each blade has a YANG model, it’s easy to include provisioning and management in a networkwide element management function.

Any open-source SDN controller that enables multivendor and multilayer awareness of the virtual network will revolutionize network management and control systems. Awareness of different layers and different vendor platforms will result in faster time to revenue, greater customer satisfaction, increased network optimization, and new services that are easier to implement.

A Unified Network Combining Ethernet and DWDM

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Carrier Ethernet is a very successful solution for providing services in a metropolitan area. This technology provides a variety of capabilities including multiple classes of service; fast restoration; standardized services such as E-Line and E-LAN; and bandwidth guarantees. As demand grows in a metro Ethernet network it becomes necessary to accommodate capacity beyond 10G access rings. DWDM is an economical technology for scaling networks beyond 10G. But an effective solution, ideally a unified network incorporating these two technologies, requires that all the components play well together.

The most common approach is deploying a DWDM overlay on top of the Carrier Ethernet network.  This architecture is a solid choice, but carries the disadvantage of requiring two separate network management systems that don’t talk to each other. This imposes a high cost in terms of operational and administrative overhead, which increases operations cost and complexity.

The Fujitsu NETSMART® 1200 Management System offers an attractive alternative. In combination with FLASHWAVE 5300 and FLASHWAVE 7120 platforms, NETSMART 1200 can integrate DWDM capabilities into the existing Carrier Ethernet network—eliminating the problem of dual management systems, while providing service management, end-to-end provisioning, and open interfaces. Each core network element has both core Ethernet switching and DWDM modules—an elegant, comprehensive, and unified solution.

SFP+ Delivers Precision Bandwidth Upgrades

Network cables closeup with fiber optic. Selective focus.

Perhaps the most onerous issue facing Ethernet network operators is that of upgrading to higher-bandwidth services.

Typically, a network interface device (NID) is deployed at a new customer site in the form of a ring that is shared among several customers. At this point, there is a decision to be made: should the NID be put in a 1 GbE ring or a 10 GbE ring?

Usually, traffic at the time of deployment warrants only a 1 GbE ring, but based on historical market trends, the aggregate bandwidth requirements of this ring will almost certainly increase to warrant a 10 GbE ring in the future. Thus, in this type of deployment, you have to decide up-front whether to invest in a 10 GbE ring initially without knowing when additional bandwidth will be needed. Alternatively, might it be more appropriate to go with a 1 GbE ring now and change to a 10 GbE ring later? Changing to a 10 GbE ring typically requires changing the NID, an expensive and troublesome activity, but this choice at least has the advantage of deferring the cost until the bandwidth is needed.

Now there’s a new approach to solving this dilemma. Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) transceivers are widely adopted, small footprint, hot-pluggable modules available in a variety of capacity and reach options, including 1 GbE. Now, enhanced Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP+) modules advance the original SFP technology, offering an elegant solution to the bandwidth growth issue: 10 GbE performance is available in SFP+ devices that are physically compatible with SFP cages. In essence you get all the convenience of SFPs, but with ten times the bandwidth.

This new capability, available in in the Fujitsu FLASHWAVE® 5300 family of carrier Ethernet devices provides an exciting and economical solution to common bandwidth growth problems. A NID can be deployed with 1 GbE client ports and 1 GbE network ports using SFPs. Then, when traffic approaches full capacity, 10 GbE SFP+ transceivers can be substituted for the original set. The onerous issue of aggregate bandwidth growth suddenly becomes…not so onerous. Simple changes of optical modules let you cost-effectively target growth exactly where it is needed—without the burden and waste of whole-chassis replacements.

This same mechanism can also accommodate client port growth from 1 to 10 GbE. This solution allows the initial installation to be sized with a more appropriate, lower cost product—1 GbE client and network SFPs—and then grow to 10 GbE when needed. The additional cost is incurred as and when needed.