Co-Creation is the Secret Sauce for Broadband Project Planning

Let’s face it—meeting rooms are boring. Usually bland, typically disheveled, and littered with odd remnants of past battles, today’s conference room is often where positive energy goes to die.

So we decided to redesign one of ours and rename it the Co-Creation Room, complete with wall-to-wall, floor-to-ceiling whiteboards. Sure, it’s just a small room but I have noticed something: it is one of the busiest conference rooms we have. It’s packed. All the time. People come together willingly – agreeing upfront to enter a crucible of co-creation – where ideas are democratized and the conversation advances past the reductive (“ok, so what do we do?”) to the expansive (“hey, what are the possibilities?”).

This theme of co-creation takes center stage when we work with customers on their broadband network projects. These projects are an incredibly diverse mix of participants, aspirations, challenges, and constraints which really brings home the necessity and power of co-creation.

Planning, funding, and designing wireline and wireless broadband networks are a question of bringing together multiple stakeholders with varied perspectives and fields of expertise, as well as negotiating complex rules of engagement, all while we plan and execute on a challenging multi-variable task. Success demands a blend of expertise, resources and political will—meaning the motivation to carry initiatives forward with enough momentum to carry through changes of leadership and priorities.

Many times prospective customers seek to start by bolstering their in-house expertise by asking for project feasibility studies  Good feasibility vendors should have knowledge of multi-vendor planning, engineering design, project and vendor management, supply chain logistics, attracting funds or investment, business modeling, and ongoing network maintenance and operations, to ensure a thorough study. Look for someone with experience across many technologies and vendors, not just one.

As a Network Integrator, we bring all the pieces together. But we do more than just get the ingredients into the kitchen. Our job is to make a complete meal. By democratizing creation, we like to expand the conversation—and broker the kind of communication that gets diverse people working together productively.

The integration partner has to simultaneously understand both the customer’s big picture and the nitty-gritty details. Our priority is to minimize project risk and drive things forward effectively.  Many times, we have to do the Rosetta Stone trick and broker mutual understanding among groups with different professional cultures, viewpoints, and language. We take that new shared understanding and harness it to co-create the best possible project outcome.

On a recent municipal broadband project, for example, we learned that city staff and network engineers, don’t speak the same language. A network engineer isn’t familiar with the ins and outs of water systems and a city public works director doesn’t know about provisioning network equipment.. But by building a trusted partner relationship, we  helped to build the shared understanding needed. With this new shared understanding, we realized that we really had re-defined what Co-Creation really means to us.

So, when you come to Fujitsu, you will see the Co-Creation Room along with this room-sized decal:

Co-Creation: Where everyone gets to hold the pen.

Importance of Fiber Characterization

Fiber networks are the foundation on which telecom networks are built.  In the early planning stages of network transformation or expansion, it is imperative that operators perform a complete and thorough assessment of the underlying fiber infrastructure to determine its performance capabilities as well as its limits.  Industry experts predict as many as one-third of the fiber networks will require modifications to the existing systems.

Front-end fiber analysis ensures key metrics are met and the fiber is at optimum performance levels to handle the greater bandwidth required to transport data-intensive applications over longer distances.  This will save the service provider time and money and prevent delays in the final test and turn-up phase of the expansion or upgrade project.

Fiber architecture diagram that shows fiber’s journey from the central office to the various real-world locations (homes, businesses, universities, etc.).

 

This full network diagram shows node locations, types of fiber and distance between notes. Includes ELEAF and SMF-28.

 

Actual images of clean and dirty fiber. Includes comparison of clean fiber versus fiber with dust, oil and liquid contaminations.


Potential Problems & Testing Options

Fiber networks are comprised of multiple types, ages and quality of fiber all of which significantly impact the fiber infrastructure and transmission capabilities.  Additionally, the fiber may come from several different fiber providers.  The net result is there are several potential problem areas with fiber transmission including:

  • ­Aging fiber optics – Some fiber optic networks have been in operation for 25+ years. These legacy fiber systems weren’t designed to handle the sheer volume of data that is being transmitted on next generation networks.
  • Dirty and damaged connectors – Dirty end faces are one of the most common problems that occur at the connectors. Environmental conditions such as oil, dirt, dust or static-charged particles can cause contamination.
  • Splice loss – Fibers are generally spliced using fusion splicing. Variations in both fiber types (manufacturers) and the types of splices that are being used (fusion or mechanical) can all result in loss.
  • Bending – Excessive bending of fiber-optic cables may deform or damage the fiber. The light loss increases as the bend becomes more acute.  Industry standards define acceptable bending radii.

Fiber characterization testing evaluates the fiber infrastructure to make sure all the fiber, connectors, splices, laser sources, detectors and receivers are working at their optimum performance levels.  It consists of a series of industry-standard tests to measure optical transmission attributes and provides the operator with a true picture of how the fiber network will handle the current modernization as well as future expansions.  For network expansions that require new dark fiber, it is very important to evaluate how the existing fiber network interacts with the newly added fiber to make sure the fiber meets or exceeds the service provider’s expectations as well as industry standards such as TIA/ANSI and Telcordia.

There are five basic fiber characterization tests:

  • Bidirectional Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) – sends a light pulse down the fiber and measures the strength of the return signal as well as the time it took. This test shows the overall health of the fiber strand including connectors, splices and fiber loss.  Cleaning, re-terminating or re-splicing can generally correct problems.
  • Optical Insertion Loss (OIL) – measures optical power loss that occurs when two cables are connected or spliced together. The insertion loss, is the amount of light lost.  In longer distances, the light loss can cause the signal strength to weaken.
  • Optical Return Loss (ORL) – sends a light pulse down the fiber and measures the amount of light that returns. Some light is lost at all connectors and splices.  Dirty or poorly mated connectors cause scattering or reflections and result in weak light returns.
  • Chromatic Dispersion (CD) – measures the amount of dispersion on the fiber. In single-mode fiber, the light from different wavelengths travels down the fiber at slightly different speeds causing the light pulse to spread.  Additionally, when light pulses are launched close together and spread too much, information is lost. Chromatic dispersion can be compensated for with the use of dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF) or dispersion compensation modules (DCM’s.)
  • Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) – occurs in single-mode fiber and is caused by imperfections that are inherent in the fiber producing polarization-dependent delays of the light pulses. The end result is the light travels at different speeds and causes random spreading of optical pulses.

Once the fiber characterization is complete, the service provider will receive a detailed analysis of the condition of the fiber plant including: location of splice points and pass-troughs as well as assignments of panels, racks and ports.  They will also know if there is any old fiber that will not be able to support higher data rates now or for future upgrades.   More importantly, by doing the fiber characterization prior to transforming or expanding their telecom network, service providers can eliminate potential risks with the fiber infrastructure that can result in substantial delays during the final test and turn-up phases.